A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION

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(Old Database about Coordination)

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ESTONIAN

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Cite as

Himmelreich, Anke, Melissa Jeckel, Katharina Hartmann, Johannes Mursell, Nelli Kerezova, and Peter W. Smith (2021): Agreement with Coordinated Subjects in the World's Languages. Ms., Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main (Link: http://www.multivaluation.de/database.php)

Overview

Language family:Uralic (Finnic
Countries:Estonia
Number of speakers:1.1 million
Agreement features:number, person
Attested word orders:SV
Coordination types:and, or

Data Collection

The data were entered by a native speaker via an online survey.

Patterns for number

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: The number on the verb is plural in all cases.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgplpl
plplpl

Examples:

(1)     Poissjameesjooksevad.
boy.sgandman.sgrun.3pl
`The boy and the man run.'
(2)     Poisidjameesjooksevad.
boy.plandman.sgrun.3pl
`The boys and the man run.'
(3)     Poissjamehedjooksevad.
boy.sgandman.plrun.3pl
`The boy and the men run.'
(4)     Poisidjamehedjooksevad.
boy.plandman.plrun.3pl
`The boys and the men run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: With two singular conjuncts, the verb is singular. If the two conjuncts mismatch in number, number is resolved to plural.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgsgpl
plplpl

Examples:

(5)     Poissvõimeesjookseb.
boy.sgorman.sgrun.3sg
`The boy or the man run.'
(6)     Poisidvõimeesjooksevad.
boy.plorman.sgrun.3pl
`The boys or the man run.'
(7)     Poissvõimehedjooksevad.
boy.sgorman.plrun.3pl
`The boy or the men run.'
(8)     Poisidvõimehedjooksevad.
boy.plorman.plrun.3pl
`The boys or the men run.'

Patterns for person

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: In all cases person is resolved to first person. (Note: number is resolved to plural.)

1st | 2nd123
11pl1pl
21pl
31pl

Examples:

(9)     Sinajaminajookseme.
youandIrun.1pl
`You and I run.'
(10)     Minajasinajookseme.
Iandyourun.1pl
`I and you run.'
(11)     Nemadjameiejookseme.
theyandwerun.1pl
`They and we run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: In all cases, every conjunct has its own verb form, thus individual conjunct agreement takes place.

1st | 2nd123
11/2sg1/3sg
21/2sg
31/3pl

Examples:

(12)     Sinajooksedvõijooksenmina.
yourun.2sgorrun.1sgI
`You or I run.'
(13)     Minajooksenvõijooksedsina.
Irun.1sgorrun.2sgyou
`I or you run.'
(14)     Meiejooksemevõijooksevadnemad.
werun.1plorrun.3plthey
`We or they run.'
(15)     Nemadjooksevadvõijooksememeie.
theyrun.3plorrun.1plwe
`They or we run.'