A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION

Menu

Database
Questionnaire
(Old Database about Coordination)

Languages

Menu

ITALIAN

Download as


(requires db.cls)


(note that Microsoft Word has problems with Unicode signs; we recommend using LibreOffice or Google Docs)

Cite as

Himmelreich, Anke, Melissa Jeckel, Katharina Hartmann, Johannes Mursell, Nelli Kerezova, and Peter W. Smith (2021): Agreement with Coordinated Subjects in the World's Languages. Ms., Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main (Link: http://www.multivaluation.de/database.php)

Overview

Language family:Indo-European (Romance)
Countries:Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, Slovenia, Istria County (Croatia)
Number of speakers:67 million
Agreement features:number, person
Attested word orders:SV
Coordination types:and, or

Data Collection

The data were entered by a native speaker via an online survey.

Patterns for number

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: The number on the verb is plural in all cases.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgplpl
plplpl

Examples:

(1)     ilragazzoel-uomocorrono
the.sgboy.sgandthe.sg-man.sgrun.3pl
`The boy and the man run.'
(2)     iragazziel-uomocorrono.
the.plboy.plandthe.sg-man.sgrun.3pl
`The boys and the man run.'
(3)     ilragazzoegliuominicorrono.
the.sgboy.sgandthe.plman.plrun.3pl
`The boy and the men run.'
(4)     iragazziegliuominicorrono.
the.plboy.plandthe.plman.plrun.3pl
`The boys and the men run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: The number on the verb is plural in all cases.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgplpl
plplpl

Examples:

(7)     ilragazzool-uomocorrono.
the.sgboy.sgorthe.sg-man.sgrun.3pl
`The boy or the man run.'
(8)     Iragazziol-uomocorrono.
the.plboy.plorthe.sg-man.sgrun.3pl
`The boys or the man run.'
(9)     ilragazzoogliuominicorrono
the.sgboy.sgorthe.plman.plrun.3pl
`The boy or the men run.'
(10)     iragazziogliuominicorrono.
the.plboy.plorthe.plman.plrun.3pl
`The boys or the men run.'

Patterns for person

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: a In all cases, person seems to be resolved according to the hierarchy 1 > 2 > 3. (Note: number is resolved to plural.)

1st | 2nd123
11pl1pl
21pl
31pl

Examples:

(13)     tueiocorriamo.
youandIrun.1pl
`You and I run.'
(14)     Ioetucorriamo.
Iandyourun.1pl
`I and you run.'
(15)     Noielorocorriamo.
weandtheyrun.1pl
`We and they run.'
(16)     Loroenoicorriamo.
theyandwerun.1pl
`They and we run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: In all cases, person seems to be resolved according to the hierarchy 1 > 2 > 3. (Note: number is resolved to plural.)

1st | 2nd123
11pl1pl
21pl
31pl

Examples:

(17)     Tuoiocorriamo.
youorIrun.1pl
`You or I run.'
(18)     Iootucorriamo.
Ioryourun.1pl
`I or you run.'
(19)     Noiolorocorriamo.
weortheyrun.1pl
`We or they run.'
(20)     Loroonoicorriamo.
theyorwerun.1pl
`They or we run.'