A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION

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(Old Database about Coordination)

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SPANISH (EUROPEAN)

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Himmelreich, Anke, Melissa Jeckel, Katharina Hartmann, Johannes Mursell, Nelli Kerezova, and Peter W. Smith (2021): Agreement with Coordinated Subjects in the World's Languages. Ms., Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main (Link: http://www.multivaluation.de/database.php)

Overview

Language family:Romance (Spanish)
Countries:Spain
Number of speakers:45 million
Agreement features:number, person
Attested word orders:SV, VS (Note: VS order is linked to particular information-structural interpretations.
Coordination types:and, or

Data Collection

The data shown here were elicited with a native speaker who was born in Phillipines but moved to the Madrid area at a very young age and still lives there. The speaker was asked to rate sentences on a scale from 1 to 5, 5 being the best possible score. In the examples, we translate the numeric judgments as follows: 1 = *, 2 = ??, 3 = ?, 4/5 = fully grammatical (Data by: Jennifer Tan)

Patterns for number

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: There is plural marking throughout.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgplpl
plplpl

Examples:

(1)     Elchicoyelhombrecorren.
theboyandthemanrun.pl
`The boy and the man run.'
(2)     *Elchicoyelhombrecorre.
theboyandthemanrun.sg
`The boy and the man run.'
(3)     Elchicoyloshombrescorren.
theboyandthe.plmenrun.pl
`The boy and the men run.'
(4)     *Elchicoyloshombrescorre.
theboyandthe.plmenrun.sg
`The boy and the men run.'
(5)     Loschicosyelhombrecorren.
the.plboysandthemanrun.pl
`The boys and the man run.'
(6)     *Loschicosyelhombrecorren.
the.plboysandthemanrun.sg
`The boys and the man run.'

VS order

Pattern: Again, there is plural marking throughout.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgplpl
plplpl

Examples:

(7)     Correnelchicoyelhombre.
run.pltheboyandtheman
`The boy and the man run.'
(8)     *Correelchicoyelhombre.
run.sgtheboyandtheman
`The boy and the man run.'
(9)     Correnelchicoyloshombres.
run.pltheboyandthe.plmen
`The boy and the men run.'
(10)     *Correelchicoyloshombres.
run.sgtheboyandthe.plmen
`The boy and the men run.'
(11)     Correnloschicosyelhombre.
run.plthe.plboysandtheman
`The boys and the man run.'
(12)     *Correloschicosyelhombre.
run.sgthe.plboysandtheman
`The boys and the man run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: There is plural throughout. However, for two singular disjuncts, singular is also possible, depending on the interpretation. (Note from the informant: ``Intuitively, both for me are possible and could be distinguished only within context (plural if inclusive or showing indifference regarding the subject who runs, singular if expressing exclusiveness, being either the boy or the man who runs''.)

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgplpl
plplpl

Examples:

(13)     Elchicooelhombrecorren.
theboyorthemanrun.pl
`The boy or the man run.'
(14)     Elchicooelhombrecorre.
theboyorthemanrun.sg
`The boy or the man run.'
(15)     Elchicooloshombrescorren.
theboyorthe.plmenrun.pl
`The boy or the men run.'
(16)     *Elchicooloshombrescorre.
theboyorthe.plmenrun.sg
`The boy or the men run.'
(17)     Loschicosoelhombrecorren.
the.plboysorthemanrun.pl
`The boys or the man run.'
(18)     *Loschicosoelhombrecorre.
the.plboysorthemanrun.sg
`The boys or the man run.'

VS order

Pattern: Two singulars resolve to singular. Mismatched cases allow either plural or first disjunct agreement.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgsgsg/pl
plplpl

Examples:

(19)     Correelchicooelhombre.
run.sgtheboyandtheman
`The boy and the man run.'
(20)     *Correnelchicooelhombre.
run.pltheboyandtheman
`The boy and the man run.'
(21)     Correelchicooloshombres.
run.sgtheboyorthe.plmen
`The boy or the men run.'
(22)     Correnelchicooloshombres.
run.pltheboyorthe.plmen
`The boy or the men run.'
(23)     Correnloschicosoelhombre.
run.plthe.plboysortheman
`The boys or the man run.'
(24)     ??Correloschicosoelhombre.
run.sgthe.plboysortheman
`The boys or the man run.'

Patterns for person

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: First person singular first conjuncts are ineffable. As second conjunct, they always trigger first person on the verb. The other combinations seem to prefer to resolve to second person with third also being possible with third person first conjuncts. (Number is resolved to plural.)

1st | 2nd123
1??1pl??1pl
21pl2pl/??3pl
31pl2pl/3pl

Examples:

(25)     *Yoycorro.
Iandyourun.1sg
`I and you run.'
(26)     *Yoycorres.
Iandyourun.2sg
`I and you run.'
(27)     ??Yoycorremos.
Iandyourun.1pl
`I and you run.'
(28)     *Yoycorren.
Iandyourun.3pl
`I and you run.'
(29)     *Túyyocorro.
youandIrun.1sg
`You and I run.'
(30)     *Túyyocorres.
youandIrun.2sg
`You and I run.'
(31)     yyocorremos.
youandIrun.1pl
`You and I run.'
(32)     *Túyyocorren.
youandIrun.3pl
`You and I run.'
(33)     *Yoyélcorro.
Iandherun.1sg
`I and he run.'
(34)     *Yoyélcorre.
Iandherun.3sg
`I and he run.'
(35)     ??Yoyélcorremos.
Iandherun.1pl
`I and he run.'
(36)     *Yoyélcorren.
Iandherun.3pl
`I and he run.'
(37)     *Élyyocorro.
heandIrun.1sg
`He and I run.'
(38)     *Élyyocorre.
heandIrun.3sg
`He and I run.'
(39)     Élyyocorremos.
heandIrun.1pl
`He and I run.'
(40)     *Élyyocorren.
heandIrun.3pl
`He and I run.'
(41)     *Túyélcorres.
youandherun.2sg
`You and he run.'
(42)     *Túyélcorre.
youandherun.3sg
`You and he run.'
(43)     yélcorréis.
youandherun.2pl
`You and he run.'
(44)     ??Túyélcorren.
youandherun.3pl
`You and he run.'
(45)     *Élycorres.
heandyourun.2sg
`He and you run.'
(46)     *Èlycorre.
heandyourun.3sg
`He and you run.'
(47)     Èlycorréis.
heandyourun.2pl
`He and you run.'
(48)     Èlycorren.
heandyourun.3pl
`He and you run.'

VS order

Pattern: Similar patterns to SV order with the exception that 1-3 can be resolved to 1. (Number is resolved to plural.)

1st | 2nd123
1??1pl1pl
21pl2pl/?3pl
31pl2pl/3pl

Examples:

(49)     *Corroyoytú.
run.1sgIandyou
`I and he run.'
(50)     *Corresyoytú.
run.2sgIandyou
`I and he run.'
(51)     ??Corremosyoytú.
run.1plIandyou
`I and he run.'
(52)     *Correnyoytú.
run.3plIandyou
`I and he run.'
(53)     *Corroyyo.
run1sgyouandI
`You and I run.'
(54)     *Corresyyo.
run2sgyouandI
`You and I run.'
(55)     Corremosyyo.
run1plyouandI
`You and I run.'
(56)     *Correnyyo.
run3plyouandI
`You and I run.'
(57)     *Corroyoyél.
run.1sgIandhe
`I and he run.'
(58)     *Correyoyél.
run.3sgIandhe
`I and he run.'
(59)     Corremosyoyél.
run.1plIandhe
`I and he run.'
(60)     *Correnyoyél.
run.3plIandhe
`I and he run.'
(61)     *Corroélyyo.
run.1sgheandI
`He and I run.'
(62)     *Correélyyo.
run.3sgheandI
`He and I run.'
(63)     Corremosélyyo.
run.1plheandI
`He and I run.'
(64)     *Correnélyyo.
run.3plheandI
`He and I run.'
(65)     *Corresyél.
run.2sgyouandhe
`You and he run.'
(66)     *Correyél.
run.3sgyouandhe
`You and he run.'
(67)     Corréisyél.
run.2plyouandhe
`You and he run.'
(68)     ?Correnyél.
run.3plyouandhe
`You and he run.'
(69)     *Corresélytú.
run.2sgheandyou
`He and you run.'
(70)     *Correélytú.
run.3sgheandyou
`He and you run.'
(71)     Corréisélytú.
run.2plheandyou
`He and you run.'
(72)     Correnélytú.
run.3plheandyou
`He and you run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: In combinations of 2 and 1, there is resolved agreement to 1pl. In other combinations resolved agreement (to the higher person on the hierarchy 1 > 2 > 3) or closest conjunct agreement is possible.

1st | 2nd123
11sg?3sg/?3pl
2?1pl3sg/2pl/?3pl
33sg/1pl/3pl3sg/2pl/3pl

Examples:

(73)     Yoocorro.
Ioryourun.1sg
`I or you run.'
(74)     *Yoocorres.
Ioryourun.2sg
`I or you run.'
(75)     *Yoocorremos.
Ioryourun.1pl
`I or you run.'
(76)     *Yoocorren.
Ioryourun.3pl
`I or you run.'
(77)     *Túoyocorro.
youorIrun.1sg
`You or I run.'
(78)     *Túoyocorres.
youorIrun.2sg
`You or I run.'
(79)     ?Túoyocorremos.
youorIrun.1pl
`You or I run.'
(80)     *Túoyocorren.
youorIrun.3pl
`You or I run.'
(81)     *Yooélcorro.
Iorherun.1sg
`I or he run.'
(82)     ?Yooélcorre.
Iorherun.3sg
`I or he run.'
(83)     ?Yooélcorremos.
Iorherun.1pl
`I or he run.'
(84)     *Yooélcorren.
Iorherun.3pl
`I or he run.'
(85)     *Éloyocorro.
heorIrun.1sg
`He or I run.'
(86)     Éloyocorre.
heorIrun.3sg
`He or I run.'
(87)     Éloyocorremos.
heorIrun.1pl
`He or I run.'
(88)     Èloyocorren.
heorIrun.3pl
`He or I run.'
(89)     *Túoélcorres.
youorherun.2sg
`You or he run.'
(90)     oélcorre.
youorherun.3sg
`You or he run.'
(91)     oélcorréis.
youorherun.2pl
`You or he run.'
(92)     ?Túoélcorren.
youorherun.3pl
`You or he run.'
(93)     *Èlocorres.
heoryourun.2sg
`He or you run.'
(94)     Élocorre.
heoryourun.3sg
`He or you run.'
(95)     Élocorréis.
heoryourun.2pl
`He or you run.'
(96)     Èlocorren.
heoryourun.3pl
`He or you run.'

VS order

Pattern: Again, considerable variation. In many cases, the preferred solutions seem to be closest conjunct agreement or resolution to plural number and person following the hierarchy 1 > 2 > 3. As for the disjunction tú o él (``you or he''), the informant remarks: ``Tricky. I assume you conjugate in the 2nd SG of the verb but can be interpreted as the imperative. In the 2nd SG reading, I give 1, in the imperative reading, I give 3''.

1st | 2nd123
11sg/2sg/1pl?1sg/?1pl
22sg/??1pl2sg/2pl
33sg/1pl3sg/2pl

Examples:

(97)     Corroyootú.
run.1sgIoryou
`I or you run.'
(98)     Corresyootú.
run.2sgIoryou
`I or you run.'
(99)     Corremosyootú.
run.1plIoryou
`I or you run.'
(100)     *Correnyootú.
run.3plIoryou
`I or you run.'
(101)     *Corrooyo.
run.1sgyouorI
`You or I run.'
(102)     Corresoyo.
run.2sgyouorI
`You or I run.'
(103)     ??Corremosoyo.
run.1plyouorI
`You or I run.'
(104)     *Correnoyo.
run.3plyouorI
`You or I run.'
(105)     ?Corroyooél.
run.1sgIorhe
`I or he run.'
(106)     *Correyooél.
run.3sgIorhe
`I or he run.'
(107)     Corremosyooél.
run.1plIorhe
`I or he run.'
(108)     *Correnyooél.
run.3plIorhe
`I or he run.'
(109)     *Corroéloyo.
run.1sgheorI
`He or I run.'
(110)     Correéloyo.
run.3sgheorI
`He or I run.'
(111)     Corremoséloyo.
run.1plheorI
`He or I run.'
(112)     *Correnéloyo.
run.3plheorI
`He or I run.'
(113)     Corresoél.
run.2sgyouorhe
`You or he run.'
(114)     *Correoél.
run.2sgyouorhe
`You or he run.'
(115)     Corréisoél.
run.2plyouorhe
`You or he run.'
(116)     *Correnoél.
run.3plyouorhe
`You or he run.'
(117)     *Corresélotú.
run.2sgheoryou
`He or you run.'
(118)     Correélotú.
run.3sgheoryou
`He or you run.'
(119)     Corréisélotú.
run.2plheoryou
`He or you run.'
(120)     *Correnélotú.
run.3plheoryou
`He or you run.'