A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION

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Questionnaire
(Old Database about Coordination)

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Cite as

Himmelreich, Anke, Melissa Jeckel, Katharina Hartmann, Johannes Mursell, Nelli Kerezova, and Peter W. Smith (2021): Agreement with Coordinated Subjects in the World's Languages. Ms., Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main (Link: http://www.multivaluation.de/database.php)

Overview

Language family:Indo-European (Indo-Iranian)
Countries:Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Russia, Azerbaijan
Number of speakers:70 million
Agreement features:number, person
Attested word orders:SV
Coordination types:and, or

Data Collection

The data were entered by a native speaker via an online survey.

Patterns for number

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: The number on the verb is plural in all cases.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgplpl
plplpl

Examples:

(1)     (An)pesarva(an)mardmidavand.
(the)boy.sgand(the)man.sgrun.3pl
`The boy or the man run.'
(2)     (An)pesar-hava(an)mardmidavand.
(the)boy.pland(the)man.sgrun.3pl
`The boys or the man run.'
(3)     (An)pesarva(an)mard-hamidavand.
(the)boy.sgand(the)man.plrun.3pl
`The boy or the men run.'
(4)     (An)pesar-hava(an)mard-hamidavand.
(the)boy.pland(the)man.plrun.3pl
`The boys or the men run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: The number on the verb is plural in all cases.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgplpl
plplpl

Examples:

(7)     (An)pesarya(an)mardmidavand.
(the)boy.sgor(the)man.sgrun.3pl
`The boy or the man run.'
(8)     (An)pesar-haya(an)mardmidavand.
(the)boy.plor(the)man.sgrun.3pl
`The boys or the man run.'
(9)     (An)pesarya(an)mard-hamidavand.
(the)boy.sgor(the)man.plrun.3pl
`The boy or the men run.'
(10)     (An)pesar-haya(an)mard-hamidavand.
(the)boy.plortheman.plrun.3pl
`The boys or the men run.'

Patterns for person

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: Mismatching person seem to be resolved according to the hierarchy 1 > 2 > 3. (Note: Number is resolved to plural.)

1st | 2nd123
11pl1pl
21pl
31pl

Examples:

(13)     Tovamanmidavim.
youandIrun.1pl
`You and I run.'
(14)     Manvatomidavim.
Iandyourun.1pl
`I and you run.'
(15)     Mavaanhamidavim.
weandtheyrun.1pl
`We and they run.'
(16)     Anhavamamidavim.
theyandwerun.1pl
`They and we run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: Mismatching person seem to be resolved according to the hierarchy 1 > 2 > 3. (Note: Number is resolved to plural.)

1st | 2nd123
11pl1pl
21pl
31pl

Examples:

(17)     Toyamanmidavim.
youorIrun.1pl
`You or I run.'
(18)     Manyatomidavim.
Ioryourun.1pl
`I or you run.'
(19)     Mayaanhamidavim.
weortheyrun.1pl
`We or they run.'
(20)     Anhayamamidavim.
theyorwerun.1pl
`They or we run.'