A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION A GENERAL THEORY OF MULTIVALUATION

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Questionnaire
(Old Database about Coordination)

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POLISH

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Cite as

Himmelreich, Anke, Melissa Jeckel, Katharina Hartmann, Johannes Mursell, Nelli Kerezova, and Peter W. Smith (2021): Agreement with Coordinated Subjects in the World's Languages. Ms., Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main (Link: http://www.multivaluation.de/database.php)

Overview

Language family:Indo-European (Slavic)
Countries:Poland, Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Lithuania, parts of Latvia, bordering Kresy regions of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus
Number of speakers:45 million
Agreement features:number, person
Attested word orders:SV
Coordination types:and, or

Data Collection

The data were entered by a native speaker via an online survey.

Patterns for number

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: The number on the verb is plural in all cases.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgplpl
plplpl

Examples:

(1)     Chłopiecimężczyznabiegną.
boy.sgandman.sgrun.3pl
`The boy and the man run.'
(2)     Chłopcyimężczyznabiegną.
boy.plandman.sgrun.3pl
`The boys and the man run.'
(3)     Chłopiecimężczyźnibiegną.
boy.sgandman.plrun.3pl
`The boy and the men run.'
(4)     Chłopcyimężczyźnibiegną.
boy.plandman.plrun.3pl
'The boys and the men run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: The number on the verb is plural, unless both conjuncts are singular.

1st | 2ndsgpl
sgsgpl
plplpl

Examples:

(6)     Chłopieclub/albomężczyznabiegnie.
boy.sgorman.sgrun.3sg
`The boy or the man run.'
(7)     Chłopcylub/albomeżczyznabiegną.
boy.plorman.sgrun.3pl
`The boys or the man run.'
(8)     Chłopieclub/albomężczyźnibiegną.
boy.sgorman.plrun.3pl
`The boy or the men run.'
(9)     Chłopcylub/albomężczyźnibiegną.
boy.plorman.plrun.3pl
`The boys or the men run.'

Patterns for person

Coordination with ``and''

SV order

Pattern: Person seems to follow a hierarchy. If there is a first person conjunct, the verb is marked for first person. (Number is resolved to plural.)

1st | 2nd123
11pl1pl
21pl
31pl

Examples:

(10)     Tyijabiegniemy.
youandIrun.1pl
`You and I run.'
(11)     Jaitybiegniemy.
Iandyourun.1pl
`I and you run.'
(12)     Myionibiegniemy.
weandtheyrun.1pl
`We and they run.'
(13)     Oniimybiegniemy.
Theyandwerun.1pl
`They and we run.'

Coordination with ``or''

SV order

Pattern: Person seems to follow a hierarchy. (If there is a first person conjunct, the verb is marked for first person. (Number is resolved to plural.)

1st | 2nd123
11pl1pl
21pl
31pl

Examples:

(14)     Tylub/albojabiegniemy.
youorIrun.1pl
`You or I run.'
(15)     Jalub/albotybiegniemy.
Ioryourun.1pl
`I or you run.'
(16)     Mylub/alboonibiegniemy.
weortheyrun.1pl
`We or they run.'
(17)     Onilub/albomybiegniemy.
theyorwerun.1pl
`They or we run.'